Theoretical literature review.
Recent years have seen many regions of Africa involved in war being caused by internal or external conflict, from democratic
Causes of Conflict in
First, conflict in
Second, conflict in
Third, conflicts in
Fourth, polarized societies risk fracture. Contrary to what so many analysts have said about how
We know the results when poverty is high, natural resources endowments are managed inequitably, governments are undemocratic and societies are polarized. The results are conflicts and the costs are terrible. War is undoubtedly the destroyer of economic development on our continent. As we saw tragically in Rwanda, Liberia and Sierra Leone, civil war not only devastates the lives of civilians; it damages the environment, it wreaks havoc on social, education and health services, it traumatizes whole generations of youth, and it forces people to abandon homes and farming land, engulfing once stable family units in flood of refugees. Statistically enormous lives from the Biafran war consumed over a million lives to the Rwandan genocide that liquidated over 800, 000 lives in just 100 days of ethnic rampage. The price of
J.Brian Atwood, former head of the US foreign aid agency, USAID commented that “failed states” (which included a number of African countries suffering from conflict), threaten our nation, they cost us too much, they create diseases that impact on us, they destabilize other nations, they stymie economic growth and they deny us economic opportunity in the largest new market place-the developing world (Esman and Herring 2001).
Empirical literature review.
These islands are faced with conflicts which exist among them and impart dichotomy as will be diagnosed from political, economic and social perspectives. In political dimensions, many of the
During the pre independence period there was an equal representation of ministers from
This enhanced the perception of all Wapemba being seen as opposition. There is claim made that there has never been a president, chief Justice or speaker of the house from Pemba.Additionally,the army, police, Jeshi la Kujenga uchumi(JKU),prison service and kikosi maalum cha kuzuia magendo(KMKM) are allegedly hesitant to employ a person of “Arab origin”. In fact since the assassination of Karume, no person of Arab, Goan, Indian, or commorian origin have been appointed to any of the above institutions.
In economic dimension the conflicts emerge in the fact that Pemba contributes 85% of the
In social perspectives there are religious tensions that are further compounded by the allegations from the western countries of growing Islamic fundamentalism in
-The travel advisories issued by the
-Women face gender specific violence during elections, for example the Mbita commission reported that 22 women claimed to have been raped and eighteen were harassed and subjected to attempted rape, the tearing of cloths and touching of the private parts. This impact led to in 1998, the
-The same time Hashim Mbita report on 4th November 2002 established that 31 people were killed, 48 suffered permanent disability and 243 people suffered injuries. Over 2000 Tanzanian fled to shimoni on the Kenyan coast as refugees. The reprisal was followed with at least two weeks of beatings, mass arrests and various forms of harassment and intimidation meted out against populace.
-The phenomena lead to social economic destruction and stagnation of the economy since during the violence economic activities do not operate smoothly.
Policy literature review.
The TANZANIA Development Vision of 2025 focuses on building a sold foundation for a competitive and dynamic economy with high productivity in the country by looking on five main attributes which are high quality livelihood,peace,stability and unity, Good Governance, A well educated and learning society and a competitive economy capable of producing sustainable growth and shared benefits. Although
The Mkukuta which is five years strategic plan strives to meet the nation vision through achieving structures and systems of governance as well as the rule of law that are democratic, participatory, representative, accountable and inclusive. The policy also address the need for equitable allocation of public resources and effective control of corruption, promote effective public service frame work in place to provide foundation for service delivery improvements and poverty reduction and finally the rights of the poor and vulnerable groups are protected and promoted in the justice system.
The right to life and security is the most basic of human rights. Without increased investment in conflict prevention,
The African societies need to be sensitized to use the democratic election mechanism at its disposal to elect good incorruptible and responsible leaders with personal integrity, committed to the development of society and to the pursuit of the interests and welfare of the whole society.
Election committees should be selected by the independent body such as judiciary or parliament and not with the president to make the committee operate smoothly without interferences.eg in Tanzania Zanzibar election committee and National electoral agency (NEC), its members are elected by the president.
African Government should reduce the political and social exclusion as well as cultivate the culture of tolerance. This can be done through development of political and social systems as well as institutions that allow for full participation of all citizens, including poor and vulnerable groups. Dialogue on human rights, reduction of poverty and peace will be promoted among political leaders.
The international community must also adopt more effective and legally binding agreements on territorial and exterritorial arms brokering, and common standards on monitoring and enforcement. This agreement could be integrated into a comprehensive Arms Trade Treaty (ATT).
Most of African causes of conflict come out as the impact of political monopoly and poverty. Political monopoly led to poor governance and undemocratic principles compounded by human rights violations, lack of respect for the rule of law and political corruption. Poor governance has caused Africans poverty, but also according to the UN Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), economic conditions imposed by the IMF and the World Banks were the dominant influence on the economic policy in the two decades to 2000, a period in which Africans income per head fell by 10% and income of the poorest 20% of people fell by 2%per year. Hence as well as looking into the urgent and critical issues of corruption, mismanaged leadership and governance in
Let us------intensify our commitment to our people, to reduce conflicts and poverty and thereby improve their quality of life. Let us embrace democratic governance, protect human rights and protect our environment. I am confident we shall rise to the occasion. I have always believed that solutions to most of our problems must come from us.
Agenda participation in Tanzania 2001: A manual on the ten principles for a
democratic culture for conflict reduction in
Dr SINDA (2004): The role of the late Mwalimu Nyerere in the conflict
resolution in the great African lake region, Institute of development
Esman and Herring (2001): Carrots, Sticks and Ethnic conflicts, rethinking
Development Assistance-University of
USAID and Ethnic Conflict: Epiphany? By Heather S.McHugh, P 54
KCK-Zanzibar constitutionalism and political stability-Muafaka and the search
for a new Vision.
(URT- June2005)National strategy for growth and reduction of Poverty
(NSGRP)-Vice presidents Office.
Global Witness (December 1998): A rough Trade; The role of Companies and
Governments in the Angolan Conflict.
The Zambian Connection: Ukranian plane came to deliver UNITA diamonds?
from the monitor for Human Rights and Development, issue 101, April
7-13, 2000 also reports on the Diamond and
Bob Geldof (2005): Our common interest-an argument, commission for
Clays ltd, st Ives plc.www.penguin .com